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Boukman wasn't Jamaican



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[OTHER ARTICLES]
Origin of the Bwa Kay Iman lieBois Caïman and plant namesKay + Iman in Northern Haitian Creole
Origin of the Boukman nameBoukman wasn't named ZambaBoukman didn't know how to read
Cécile Fatiman wasn't muslimTamerlan wasn't muslimDédé Magrite wasn't muslim
Azaka is not muslimDessalines wasn't muslimBoukman wasn't the revolutionary army's leader
Boukman wasn't muslim




                                                                                        (Li li an Kreyòl(Version française) 
Author : Rodney Salnave
Function : Dougan (Scribe)
Date : September 24, 2016
(Updated : Mar. 23, 2017)

Proponents of the Muslim farce present the name "Boukman" as one-of-a-kind. This custom-made name was supposedly allocated to Boukman by a Jamaican settler who caught him reading a koran (holy book of Muslims). Following this, as Boukman was supposed to always carry that koran, the English words "Book" and "Man", were then combined to describe him as a so-called "Man of the Book", as in a Muslim priest.

The worst part of this is that  such a far-fetched fabrication that is not supported by any historical evidence, is believed even by educated people. To date, nobody can locate that plantation in Jamaica to which Boukman belonged, nor the name of the English planter who would have nickmaned him "Book-Man". Unfortunately, when it comes to subjects specific to black peoples, precision and historical evidence suddenly become insignificant. The truth is then whatever one wishes it to be.

This article will trace the origin of the falsehood stating that Boukman owned a book, as well as the genesis of the claim that he hailed from Jamaica. We will prove this through 4 points.
 

1- « Bouque » was a French word * :


"BOUQUE (Mar.): Mot dont on faisait usage autrefois en Amérique, pour désigner un passage, un canal ou un détroit." (1)
Translation : 
"BOUQUE (Maritime.): Word used in the Americas to designate a narrow path, a channel, a straight."
"HIST. XVe s. Et vindrent à passer devant une bonne ville qui sied à l'entrée de la bouque de la mer majeure, Bouciq. I, ch 32.
XVIe s. Le Tybre croist par les vents austraux qui, soufflans droict en sa bouque près Hostie, suspendent son cours, RAB. Sciomachie."
(2)
Translation :
"HIST. 15th century. And they came to pass by a good city located at the foot of the "bouque" of the major sea, Bouciq. I, ch 32.
16th century. The Tybre [Italian river] grows stronger by the southern winds that, blow directly in its "bouque" near Hostie, pausing its flow, RAB. Sciomachie."


Fort la Bouque

"Le fort la Bouque est sur la pointe est de la baie du fort Dauphin [Fort Liberté actuel], dont la beauté avait donné lieu au premier nom qu'elle reçut des Espagnols et qui devint celui de toute cette partie de l'île.

(…)

"Fort la Bouque, mot francisé de l'espagnol Boca, qui signifie entrée, bouche, et dont une prononciation vicieuse fait déjà le fort la Boucle." (3)
Translation :
"Fort la Bouque is located on the Eastern edge of the bay of Fort Dauphin [currently Fort Liberté], whose beauty had caused it to be the first to receive a name by the Spaniards, and that became that of all of this part of the island.
(...)
Fort la Bouque, frenchified word from the spanish Boca, that means entry, mouth, and that a faulty pronounciation had previously rendered Fort la Boucle."


Débouquement
"On entend par le mot de Débouquement, un Passage étroit entre des terres, dans lequel il faut faire route pour sortir d'un Parage, ou quitter une Côte. Ce mot vient des Espagnols, qui ayant navigué les premiers dans ces cantons, nommèrent ces Passages et ces Entrées étroites Bocca, en français Bouches, dont les Marins ont fait le mot de Débouquement, pour dire sortir par une Bouche ou Passage étroit. On dit aussì embouquer pour entrer : mais ces termes ne sont en usage que parmi les Marins." (4)
Translation :
"By the word Débouquement, we mean, a narrow passage between the land in which you have to drive out a trimming or leave a Coast. This word comes from the Spanish, who were the first to sail these cantons, and who named these passages and narrow entries Bocca, Bouches in French, the sailors transformed it into Débouquement, to say out by mouth or narrow passage. They also say enbouquer to enter, but these terms are in use only amongst the sailors."


"Vue du Débouquement de St.-Domingue", Moreau de St.-Méry, 1875.

2- Here is the origin of the "Jamaican Boukman" lie :

(1785)
In 1785 - just six years before Bois Caiman - de Bellecombe, then Governor General of Saint Domingue, capitulated to a maroon band who took refuge in the mountains nearby Jacmel (Southern Saint Domingue). (5)

(1801)
Pierre François Page, a settler serving as Commissioner of Saint Domingue, wrote on the 125 maroons whose freedom reminded him of a similar act of the British in Jamaica in 1733 :

"En 1733, l'Angleterre fut forcée de reconnaître l'indépendance de quelques Nègres révoltés à la Jamaïque ; et M. de Bellecombe, gouverneur à Saint-Domingue, fut obligé de faire, en 1785, une capitulation semblable avec 125 Nègres marrons." (6)
Translation :
"In 1733, Britain was forced to recognize the independence of some revolted Negroes in Jamaica ; and M. de Bellecombe, Governor of Saint Domingue, was obliged to make in 1785 a similar capitulation to 125 Maroons."

(1805)
1 year after the independence of Haiti, 14 years after Bois Caiman, Phillipe Lattre, an abolitionist, was praising Boukman, when he became the first to deform "Boukman" into "Bouk-man". Similarly, he was the first to think that the name Boukman can be broken down in the English language. That's what lead him to say that Boukman was English, and that he was among the 125 maroons freed by Bellecombe. Shamelessly, the author pretended that these 125 maroons came from Jamaica and not locally, in nearby Jacmel :

"Le premier Spartacus de Saint-Domingue, était un nègre de nom anglais, nommé Bouk-man, qui n'a pas été connu appartenir à la colonie. Il était un envoyé des anglais, ou l'un des chefs des cent vingt-cinq nègres marons, que le gouverneur-général de Bellecombe avait reconnu indépendans." (7)
Translation :
"The first Spartacus of Saint Domingue, was an English-named negro called Bouk-man, who was not known to belong to the colony. He was sent by the English, or one of the leaders of one hundred twenty five maroon negroes, the Governor-General de Bellecombe had recognized as free."

Moreover, no one in the colony has never argued that Boukman hailed from Jamaica, or even that he spoke English. None who knew him, no runaway ad, nor official colonial paper, ever mentioned such origin. Nothing hints that Boukman came from elsewhere. It was only post the independence of Haiti that Phillipe Lattre, well at ease in France, imagined an English filiation to the Boukman name. Obviously, he was delirious.
And to erase all doubts concerning Boukman's origin, we must point out that he, unlike what Phillipe Lattre stated, was in fact known to the colony. In 1785, at the time of the freedom of the 125 Southern maroons, according to town delegate Leclerc (8), Boukman belonged to his family, at the Turpin Estate of Limbé (North province) from where, 4 years later, in 1789, he was sold to the Clément Estate of l'Accul (North)  :
"We have a few other pieces of informations about Boukman. Leclerc, the procureur-syndic of the Limbé town council at the time of the insurrection and later, from October 1792 to June 1793, the governement delegate to the Le Cap law court, drew up some notes that inform us that Bookman had been a slave on his familiy's plantation and that he was considered a "bad slave." He ran away but did not go far; he came back to the plantation at night to get food. After being discovered one night by Leclerc's brother, he was shot and wounded, then sold. This is how he ended up on the Clément plantation in Acul, a parish next to Limbé. He cannot have been considered all that "bad" a slave, since he was employed in the trusted position of coachman." (9)
(1808)
Henri Baptiste Grégoire (Abbé Grégoire), who was a renowned abolitionist author, took over the story of the 125 maroons, but from the Pierre François Page text published in 1801-1802. He spoke of the 125 maroons from the vicinity of Jacmel, and not Jamaica :

"Les Nègres marrons de Jacmel ont, durant près d'un siècle, épouvanté Saint-Domingue. Le plus impérieux des gouverneurs, Bellecombe, fut obligé, en 1785, de capituler avec eux; ils n'étaient cependant que cent vingt-cinq hommes de la partie française, et cinq de partie espagnole." (10)
Translation :
"The Jacmel Maroons have, for nearly a century, terrified Saint Domingue. The most compelling of Governors, Bellecombe, was compelled in 1785 to surrender to them. They were, however, only one hundred twenty five men of the French side, and five from the Spanish part."
This quote removes all doubts relating to the origin of the 125 maroons, that were indeed from the French colony of Saint Domingue ; while 5 other maroons hailed from the Spanish part. Thus, even if we've artificially placed Boukman amongst those 125 maroons, he still wouldn't be from elsewhere than Saint Domingue. And Jamaica was not in the picture.

(1826)
The author Placide Justin, without citing any source, adopted Phillipe Lattre's hypothesis by presenting Boukman as a "creole from English islands" :


"Ce jour, à dix heures du soir, les noirs de l'habitation Turpin, sous la conduite du nègre Boukmann, créole des îles anglaises, entraînant avec eux les esclaves des habitations voisines, se répandent dans toute la dépendance du Cap..." (11)
Translation :
"At ten o'clock in the evening, the blacks of the Turpin estate, led by the negro Boukmann, creole from the English islands, dragging with them the slaves of the neighboring dwellings, spread themselves throughout Le Cap..."
That same year, Victor Hugo, a young author, rewrote his first novel devoted to the Saint Domingue revolution. It is based on the Phillipe Lattre falsification that Boukman was an old maroon from Jamaica that de Bellecombe (Governor of Saint Domingue, not Jamaica) have released. But Victor Hugo took where Phillipe Lattre left off. Writing a novel, and not a history book, he made full use of the artistic freedom to which he is entitled. Thus, he brought the Phillipe Lattre audacity further by inventing that Boukman originated from Jamaica's Blue Mountain region :

"Bouckmann, chef des cent vingt noirs de la Montagne Bleue à la Jamaïque, reconnus indépendants par le gouverneur-général de Belle-Combe..." (12)
Translation :
"Bouckmann, head of one hundred and twenty blacks of the Blue Mountains in Jamaica, recognized independent by the Governor General of Belle Combe..."

(1831)
Théodore Gaspard Mollien, one of the first to write the history of Haiti (not that of Saint Domingue), discredited himself, when he dared to draw from the Victor Hugo novel to repeat the nonsense that Boukman came from Jamaica's Blue mountains :


"Jean-François, dernier domestique de M. Papillon, s'était placé au Dondon. Boukman, nègre des montagnes bleues de la Jamaïque, était à la soufrière de l'Acul." (13)
Translation :
"Jean-François, last servant of M. Papillon, camped at Dondon. Boukman, negro of Jamaica's Blue Mountains, was at the outskirts of l'Acul."

(1850)
Saint-Remy, a Haitian historian, joined the lying about Boukman club. However, he did not have knowledge of the Mollien work that was unpublished. The Victor Hugo novel, by essenc non-scientific innature, sserved him, nevertheless as source. A clue lies in his spelling of "Bouckman" that is close to "Bouckmann" in Victor Hugo's novel :

"Le chef principal avait nom Bouckman, africain primitivement vendu à la Jamaïque, d'où il fut porté à Saint-Domingue; il appartenait à l'habitation Clément. Cet homme, doué d'une force herculéenne, ne concevait pas ce que c'était que le danger; il marchait au combat avec l'enthousiasme d'un fanatique, semant la flamme de l'incendie et couvrant sa route de cadavres." (14)
Translation :
"The main leader was called Bouckman, African originally sold to Jamaica, from where he was brought to Saint-Domingue. He belonged to the Clement estate. This man, endowed with Herculean strength, had no conception of danger; he walked into battle with the enthusiasm of a fanatic, spreading the flame of fire and covering his path with corpses."

(1925)
Finally, in 1925, it was game over. The stampede had begun. Dorsainvil, in cohort with the Frères de l'Instruction Chrétienne, repeated the Jamaican Boukman urban legend without the required checks. Ever since, Haitian schoolchildren are forced to recite this falsehood :

"Boukman était né à la Jamaïque; c'était un houngan, c'est-à-dire un prêtre du vaudou; il était de haute taille et fort comme un géant; il exerçait une influence extraordinaire sur les autres esclaves." (15)
Translation :
"Boukman was born in Jamaica, he was a houngan, that is to say, a priest of vodou; he was tall and strong like a giant; he exerted an extraordinary influence on the other slaves."
Here is how a historical event such as the Governor General de Bellecombe releasing 125 untamable maroons nearby Jacmel (South of Saint Domingue, Haiti), was converted into a Jamaican lie that revisionists seized to advocate the Islamization of Boukman.

In these two previous excerpts, one must also take notice of "endowed with Herculean strength," or "tall and strong as a giant" that are racist and unfounded expressions continually attributed to Boukman and many other Haitian revolutionaries (16- 17), including Cécile Fatiman (18) to suggest that physical dominance, not intellect, is the sought aftter requirement of leadership among the Blacks (depicted as wild and intellectually impoverished). But of course, the size of Boukman, nor that of Macandal, has never attracted eyewitnesses' attention. Moreover, Henry Christophe, the Haitian revolution leader, was the only one blessed with an imposing physique (19). And rare were the band leaders - aside from Alaou (20) - that possessed an extravagant frame. Unfortunately, Haitian historians have no issue with passing on degrading colonial stereotypes to the people they claim wanting to educate for a better future.

The sole link between Boukman and the Blue Mountains
Finally, in September 1791, as Boukman was battling the settlers, Saint Domingue's colonial assembly requested a Jamaican loan in order to financially support the Northern planters coping with severe losts. In addition to money, the French followed Jamaica's representative Bryan Edwards' proposal, by officially requesting slaves troops from the Blue Mountains that are known for submiting rebel slaves :


"Le présent arrêté sera présenté à M. le Lieutenant au gouvernement général et représentant de Sa Majesté dans la colonie, pour avoir son approbation, et être par lui adressé au lord Effingham, avec pièce de le communiquer à l'assemblée de la Jamaïque.
L'un des membres a observé, que les ateliers étant toujours en révolte, et n'ayant point de troupes de ligne à espérer, il croyait qu'il était de la sagesse de l'assemblée de profiter de l'ouverture qu'avait fait M. Edouards, que peut-être le gouverneur de la Jamaïque consentirait à nous envoyer les Nègres de la montagne Bleue, seule troupe employée dans cette île pour soumettre les esclaves rebelles.
Cette motion appuyée, l'assemblée arrête que son président s'entendra avec M. le Lieutenant au gouvernement général, pour demander au gouverneur de la Jamaïque le Nègres de la montagne Bleue." (21)
Translation :
"This order shall be submitted to Mr. Lieutenant to the Governor and His Majesty's representative in the colony, for its approval, and by him addressed to Lord Effingham, with room to communicate it to the Jamaican Assembly.
One member noted that the workshops being still in revolt, and having no regular troops to hope, he believed it was wise of the assembly to take advantage of the opening thad Mr. Edwards did, that perhaps Jamaica's governor would agree to send us Negroes from Blue mountain, the sole troop used in this island to subject rebellious slaves.
This motion
supported, the assembly rules that its president will agree with Mr. Lieutenant General Government, for asking Jamaica's governor the negroes from the Blue Mountain."
Ultimately, hostile to the French, British Jamaica did not provide Saint Domingue with black troops from Blue Mountains ; although French judge Garran-Coulon believes Jamaica was open to the idea (22). But the irony of the story is that not only Boukman wasn't from Jamaica's Blue Mountains, he was potentially the enemy of those Jamaican Blacks that allied with settlers against freedom seeking Blacks.
Moreover, it was due to the warlike reputation of the black Jamaicans from Blue Mountains that Victor Hugo, in his novel Bug-Jargal (1826), had placed his Boukman character as native of Blue Mountains. But the novelist would never have imagined that historians would have taken as historical fact, what he intended as pure fiction. 

3- Here's a list of 10 people named Boukman in the colony :

Boukman #1 : January 26, 1750, Bouqueman, is a Black guy from Le Cap who was involved in the abduction of a young woman :


"Demeurant au Cap, où elle a resté trois jours, que de là elle fut chez M. Delarue, ensuite chez Mme Beauval, à la case du nommé Bouqueman, où elle aurait été arrêtée marrone quelques temps auparavant, et de là, conduite par ledit Nègre à son père sur l'habitation Carbon au Bois de Lance, où elle a presque toujours resté depuis, et ce, dans la vue de forcer ledit frère Lavaud de la vendre." (23)
Translation :
"Residing in Le Cap, where she stayed three days, from there she was taken to Mr. Delarue's residence, then to Madame Beauval's, at the shed belonging to the named Bouqueman, where she was arrested as a mid-term maroon, and from there, led by the said Negro [Bouqueman] to her father at the Carbon estate in Bois Lance, where since, she almost always remains, and this, in order to force the so-called Lavaud brother to sell her."

Boukman #2 : December 15, 1757, funeral of Pierre Boukman, a French settler in Port-au-Prince :



“Enterrement de Pierre Boukman - Aujourd'hui quinzième décembre mil sept cent cinquante et sept a été inhumé dans le cimetière de cette paroisse le corps de Pierre Boukman natif de Luré en Flandre. Agé de trente six ans, décédé à l'hôpital, muni du sacrement de pénitence…” (24)
Translation :
"Burial of Pierre Boukman - Today December 15, 1757, was buried in the cemetery of this parish [Port-au-Prince, West province] the body of Pierre Boukman, native of Lure in Flandre [France]. Aged 36, died in hospital, was provided the sacrament of penance..."

Boukman #3, 4 : 1761, in the inventory of "la Sucrerie Saint-Michel" located at Pointe Icaque (North), there were 2 White women named Bouquemen :


"Il est intéressant de trouver deux femmes qui s’appellent Bouquemen, nom du premier chef des révoltés de 1791. Bouquemen créole « vieille » et Cécile Bouquemen Guillebedau, se trouvent côte à côte sur la liste. Elles sont peut-être mère et fille." (25)
Translation :
"It is interesting to find two women called Bouquemen, name of the first leader of the rebels of 1791." Bouquemen Creole « old lady » and Cécile Bouquemen Guillebedau, lie side by side on the list. They may be mother and daughter."

Boukman #5 : February 10, 1776, this "Bouquemant" is perhaps a Creole "mint" salesman?

"Au Cap, le 4 de ce mois, Bouquemant, créole, étampé illisiblement, lequel a dit appartenir à M. Le Conte, Procureur de l’Habitation Portelance" (26)
Translation :
"In Le Cap, on the 4th of this month, Bouquemant, Creole, stamped illegibly, said to belong to Mr. Le Conte, Prosecutor of Portelance Estate."

Boukman #6 : October 5, 1779, "Bouqueman" is a dangerous hunter from the North-East aged 40-42:


"Trois Nègres nommés Bouqueman, chasseur ; Jean-Jacques, créole, cocher, sans étampe, & David, étampé X, Nègre de Guinée, sont partis marons de l'Habitation de M. Cailleau aîné & de Mde veuve Dorlic, à Maribaroux [Nord-Est] : les deux premiers, âgés de 40 à 42 ans, sont deux sujets des plus dangereux qu'il est important d'arrêter, l'un taille de 5 pieds 3 pouces, figure ronde, les yeux petits & d'un regard farouche ; le cocher, taille de 5 pieds 4 pouces, les yeux enfoncés, les narines ouvertes, grande bouche, lui manquant des dents de devant, les jambes cambrées & jetant de côté de la gauche en marchant, ce dernier évadé avec un nabot, une chaîne & des serre-pouces. Ceux qui les reconnaîtront, sont priés de les faire arrêter & transférer dans les cachots les plus voisins & avec le plus de sureté possible, & d'en donner avis au Sieur Dorlic, à Maribaroux." (27)
Translation :
"Three Negroes named Bouqueman, hunter ; Jean-Jacques, Creole, coachman, without stamp, & David, stamped X Negro from Guinea, went marooned off the Mr. Cailleau aîné & widow Mde Dorlic Estate at Maribaroux [North-East]: the first two, aged 40 to 42, are two of the most dangerous subjects it is important to stop, one sized 5 foot 3 inches, round face, small eyes & a wild look; the coachman,  5 feet 4 inches height, sunken eyes, open nostrils, wide mouth, missing front teeth, curved legs & walking leaning to the left, the latter escaped with a "nabot", a chain & thumb-grips. Those who recognize them, are requested to stop & transfer them to the nearest dungeons & with the greatest possible safety, & to give notice to Sieur Dorlic at Maribaroux."

Boukman #7 : December 19, 1780 "Bouqueman" is a 55 year old Congo :


"Au Fort-Dauphin, est entré à la Geole (...) le 5, Louis, Congo, étampé sur le sein droit IVCHEREAU, âgé de 30 ans, se disant appartenir à l'Habitation de M. de Juchereau, au Trou ; Bouqueman, même nation, âgé de 55 ans, étampé sur le sein droit FLEURY, se disant appartenir à M. de Fleury, à Jacquesy." (28)
Translation :
"At Fort-Dauphin, entered the jail (...) on the 5th, Louis, Congo, stamped on the right breast IVCHEREAU, aged 30, claiming to belong to Mr. Juchereau's Estate at Trou ; Bouqueman, same nation [meaning Congo], 55 years old, stamped on the right breast FLEURY, claiming to belong to Mr. Fleury at Jacquesy [North-East] "

Boukman #8, 9 : in 1783, two other White women named "Bouqueman" and "Bouquemen" are found on the inventory of La Sucrerie Baudin of Quartier Morin (Norh) :

"Ayant déjà noté sur la sucrerie voisine de Saint-Michel deux femmes qui s'appellent Bouquemen, c'est surtout curieux de trouver ici une "Geneviève Bouqueman" âgée de 71 ans, et une "Bouqueman noire" qui morte récemment âgée de 69 ans. Il n'est pas sûr qu'elles soient créoles, mais dans l'inventaire de 1761 on trouve une Bouqueman et une Bouqueman Cécile, toutes deux nées à Saint-Domingue, ou du moins aux Antilles. Doit-on voir dans ce nom une référence aux "Isles des Débouquements", nom qui à  l'époque désignait les isles Bahamas et Turques et Caïcos exportatrices à l'occasion d'esclaves?" (29)
Translation :
"Having already noted on the nearby Saint-Michel sugar plantation two women called Bouquemen is especially curious to find here a "Genviève Bouqueman", 71 years old, and a "Bouqueman noire" who recently died at the age of 69. It isn't sure whether they were Creoles, but in the 1761 inventory, we've found a Bouqueman and Bouqueman Cécile, both born in Saint Domingue, at least in the West Indies. Should we see in this name a reference to the "Isles of Débouquements", a name which at that time meant the Bahamas islands and Turks & Caicos, at the time slave exporters?


Boukman #10 :  in 1816*, "Bouqueman" is King Henry's Lieutenant at Ennery (Center) :





"Lieutenant du Roi à Ennery.
M. de Bouqueman, capitaine, C...
M. Toussaint Guillaume, sous-lieut, adjudant d'armes.
(...)
Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint HENRY, créé le 20 Avril 1811.
Promotion du 28 Octobre 1815, an douze.
Messieurs,
(...)
de Jean Cochet.
d'Étienne Gilot.
de Bouqueman.
de Julien Gillot.
de Lubin."
Translation :
"King's Lieutenant at Ennery.
M. de Bouqueman, captain, C...
M. Toussaint Guillaume, 2nd-lieut, adjutant of arms.
(...)
Royal and Military Order of Saint HENRY, created April 20, 1811.
Promotion of October 28, 1815, year twelve.
Messieurs,
(...)
de Jean Cochet.
d'Étienne Gilot.
de Bouqueman.
de Julien Gillot.
de Lubin." (30)

As we have seen, there were people of all races and colors, of both sexes, of all ages, and of various ethnicities called Boukman in the colony of Saint Domingue. For Boukman was a common name no different than Jean-Jacques or Joseph, etc. No element of this name had a link to either the English language or the island of Jamaica. In an up-coming article, we will lay down the origin of the Boukman surname, how it entered the French language, then assigned to the captives (slaves).


4- "Dutty" in "Boukman Dutty" or "Dutty Boukman" is unfounded


The Dutty surname is viewed, particularly in English-speaking caribbean countries, as a proof that Boukman originated from Jamaica. Thus, reinforcing the islamic falsehood. Like many, I long viewed a Jamaican affiliation to Haitian hero Boukman as a bridge to help fill the cultural and historical gap between Haiti and the caribbean world. But such gap cannot be filled by fabrications that, sooner or later, will shatter, but only by historical truth such as the caribbean origin of Haiti's King Henry (Christophe) who most likely was born in Grenada, and who is known to have conversed fluently in English with many foreigners ; or by the use of factual resistance by caribbean captives, which the Saint Domingue archives have plenty of, like this Jamaican, in 1780, that went marooned from his plantation in Morne-Rouge, place of the gathering that sparked the Haitian revolution :


"Un Nègre nommé Lubin, créole de la Jamaïque, âgé d'environ 24 ans, taille de 5 pieds 4 pouces, étampé sur le sein droit GUILLAUME COSQUIER, est parti maron depuis environ trois semaines avec un canot de 17 pieds de long. Ceux qui le reconnoîtront, sont priés de le faire arrêter & d'en donner avis à M. Guillaume Cosquier, Habitant au Morne-Rouge." (31)
Translation : 
"A Negro called Lubin, creole from Jamaica, aged roughly 24, 5 feet 4 inches high, stamped on the right chest GUILLAUME COSQUIER, went marooned around three weeks ago on a 17-foot canoe. Those who recognize him, please have him arrested & send for M. Guillaume Cosquier, residing at Morne Rouge."

So how did the Dutty surname enter the picture, one might ask? Well, in 1853, Dutty was attached to Boukman as a surname by Haitian author Céligny Ardouin who provided no reference :




"Toussaint fit choix de ses plus intimes amis+, Jean-François Papillon, Georges Biassou, Boukman Dutty et Jeannot Billet. Les conjurés se réunirent ct se distribuèrent les rôles. Plus rusé que les autres, Jean-François obtint le premier rang++, Biassou le second; et Boukman et Jeannot, plus audacieux, se chargèrent de diriger les premiers mouvements." (32)
Translation :
"Toussaint chose some of his closest friends+, Jean-François Papillon, Georges Biassou, Boukman Dutty and Jeannot Billet. They gathered and distributed the roles. Jean-François, the sneakiest, obtained the highest rank++. Biassou, was second in command ; while Boukman and Jeannot, the most audacious, were in charge of the first attacks."
It is unwise to take Ardouin at face value, knowing that he was writing about events that took place 62 years earlier. To this day, no archival data supports links Boukman to the name Dutty. As for the claim that Dutty was the name of a Jamaican planter, it is unproven as well. 
Due to the English nature of the name Dutty found in French speaking Saint Domingue (Haiti), one is tempted to attribute an external English origin to that name. But, even if Boukman was also named Dutty, that wouldn't automatically mean that he came from an English speaking colony. Because, historical data shows that name in the colony with no connection to an English source. For example, in 1766 (25 years before Bwa Kayiman) we had this runaway ad in Fort Dauphin (Fort Liberté, Northeastern Saint Domingue) for a Mulatto from the French colony of Martinique named Jean Dutie:


"Un Mulâtre, se disant libre, de la Martinique, & se nommer Jean Dutie, étampé sur le sein droit RIMEAV,  & sur le gauche illisiblement." (33)
Translation :
"A Mulatto, claims to be free, from Martinique, and says to be named Jean Dutie, stamped on the right chest RIMEAV, and on the left illegibly."
This is the full runaway ad. The Jean Dutie reference is on the bottom :
 

Aside from Jean Dutie, there were several runaway ads for captives stamped DUTY. And never, in these case, have we found a reference to an English filiation to those captives, nor to their owners. For example, the following 1767 runaway ad (24 years before Bwa Kayiman) is about Pallanqué, a captive identified as Portuguese, that was stamped DUTY and whose owner was Sr. Duty from Port-de-Paix (North-Western Saint Domingue) :


"Un Negre Portugais, nommé Pallanqué, étampé sur les deux seins DUTY & au dessous PP, âgé d'environ 40 ans, taille de 5 pieds 5 pouces, rouge de peau, est maron depuis le 28 avril. Ceux qui le reconnoîtront sont priés de le faire arrêter & d'en donner avis au Sr. Duty, Passager du Port-de-Paix, demeurant audit lieu; il y aura une quadruple de récompense." (34)
Translation :
"A Portuguese Negro, named Pallanqué, stamped on both chest DUTY & on the bottom PP, aged roughly 40, hight 5 feet 5 inches, light skinned, went marooned on April 28th. Those who recognize him are asked to have him arrested & send a note to Sr. Duty, visiting from Port-de-Paix, residing at the said place ; there will be four times the reward."
In this case, Pallanqué, the captive, can be given his owner's surname and be called Pallanqué Duty, as was the norm in the colony. Just like Boukman, most modern people would easily believe, due to the English-sounding Duty surname, that he hailed from an English colony. But this runaway ad, in showing that Pallanqué Duty, actually came from a Portuguese-speaking territory, also proves that the name Dutty, arbitrarily assigned to Boukman by Céligny Ardouin, isn't proof of an English origin. As for the owner, Sr. Duty, nothing in his 1767 runaway ad suggests that he was English, or even foreign to the colony.
Moreover, we've found various other cases of captives stamped DUTY, and, again, with no English linkage, proving that the name Duty enter French genealogy long before the establishment of the Transatlantic slavery and the colony of Saint Domingue :

a) Stamped JOYNEAU & DUTY :

"Un Nègre appellé Bouis Chouchou, appartenant aux mineurs Joyneau, étampé JOYNEAU & DUTTY, affermé au Sieur Videlet, habitant au quartier de Saint-Louis. Ceux qui le reconnaîtront, sont priés de le faire arrêter. Il y aura récompense." (35)
Translation : 
"A Negro called Bouis Chouchou, belonging to the Joyneau miners, stamped JOYNEAU & DUTTY, leased to Sieur Videlet, living in the Saint-Louis neighborhood. Those who recognize him, are asked to have him arrested. There will be reward."
b) 2 captives stamped DUTY :
"Toussaint Dupon âgé de 28 ans : Toussaint Casalis âgé de 24 ans : César âgé de 26 ans ; ces six derniers sont de nation Congo, & sont étampés E DUPON : Laurent de nation Congo, âgé de 40 ans, étampé A CRUCHET, Léon âgé de 18 ans : Monplaisir âgé de 23 ans : Marsias & Darius, âgé de 20 ans ; ces quatre derniers sont de nation Congo, & sont étampés E. DUPON : Augustin âgé de 22 ans, étampé DUTY : Augustin de nation Mayombé, âgé de 22 ans, étampé E DUPON. (...) Joseph âgé de 26 ans, étampé DUTY : tous les Nègres ci-dessus sont partis marrons de l'habitation de madame veuve Dupont, dans les hauteurs du Bas de Saint-Anne : en donner des nouvelles à ladite Dame, ou à M. Louis Foucher au Cap-Français." (36)
Translation : 
"Toussaint Dupon aged 28: Toussaint Casalis aged 24 : Caesar aged 26 ; The last six are of the Congo nation, and are stamped DUPON: Laurent of Congo nation, aged 40, stamped A CRUCHET, Léon aged 18 : Monplaisir aged 23 : Marsias & Darius, aged 20; These last four are of the Congo nation, and are stamped E. DUPON : Augustin aged 22, stamped DUTY : Augustin of Mayombé nation, 22 years old, stamped E DUPON (...) Joseph aged 26, stamped DUTY : All the negroes above went maroon from the habitation of Madame Dupont, in the heights of Lower Saint-Anne, give news to the said Lady, or to M. Louis Foucher at Cap-Francais."
c) Stamped DOUTTÉ & S. LAPALIERE :
"François de nation Congo, âgé d'environ 40 ans, de la taille de 5 pieds 4 pouces, étampé DOUTTÉ & S. LAPALIERE, la dernière étampe ayant la forme d'un croissant, est parti marron depuis un an..." (37)
Translation :
"Francois of Congo nation, about 40 years old, sized 5 feet 4 inches, stamped DOUTTÉ & S. LAPALIERE, the last stamp having the shape of a crescent, went maroon since last year..."
---
* Other than the ancient naval word "Bouque", the French language also possesses "Bouc", the common designation of a male goat. And according to the academic French dictionary Dictionnaire Littré de la langue française, Bouc's origin can be traced back to Wallon, a Belgian language. (Littré, 1976 : 379)
** 1816 was clearly 12 years into the free state of Hayti. But Lieutenant de Bouqueman was born and named in the Saint Domingue colony. 
+ Ardouin's statement is untrue, because Toussaint, a former slave turned slaveowner, wasn't the mastermind of the revolution as many like to think. It was Jean-Jacques, commander of the des Manquets (Noé) plantation  in L'Acul (North) that engineered the whole thing over close to a decade. (To be developped later)]
++ Contrary to common belief, Boukman wasn't the leader of the insurrection ; Jean-François (the King) was. Nor was he the second in command ; Biassou (the Vice-Roi) was. See "Boukman wasn't the revolutionary army's leader" for more.



Notes
(1) Comte de Chesnel. Encyclopédie militaire et maritime, Volume 1. Paris, 1864. p.57.
(2) Le Dictionnaire Littré de la langue française de 1976, à la page 390. 
(3) Moreau de Saint-Méry. Description topographique, physique, civile, politique, Tome 1. Philadelphie, 1796. pp.129-130.
(4) Jacques Nicolas Bellin. Description des débouquements qui sont au nord de l'isle de Saint Domingue. Paris, 1768. p.2.
(5) Beaubrun Ardouin. Études sur l'histoire d'Haïti. Volume 1, Paris, 1853. pp.219-220.
(6) Pierre François Page. Traité d'économie politique et de commerce des colonies, Tome 2. Paris, 1801. p.xxxviii
(7) Phillipe Lattre. Campagnes des Français à Saint-Domingue. Paris, 1805. pp.47-48.
(8) « Notes de M. Leclerc, procureur-syndic du Limbé, commissaire du gouvernement près du tribunal criminel du Cap français, sur la brochure de M. Gros », AN, Col. CC9a 5.
(9) Yves Bénot. "The insurgents of 1791, their leaders and the concept of independence". In: David Patrick Geggus, Norman Fiering. The World of the Haitian Revolution. Bloomington, 2009. pp.99-110.
(10) Henri Baptiste Grégoire. De la littérature des Nègres ou recherches de leurs facultés. Paris, 1808. p.107.
(11) Placide Justin, James Barskett (Sir.). Histoire politique et statistique de l'île d'Hayti: Saint-Domingue... Paris, 1826. p.206.
(12) Victor Hugo. Bug-Jargal, Paris 1826. p.43.
(13) Gaspard Théodore Mollien. Histoire ou Saint Domingue. Tome 1. Paris, 1831, réed. 2006. p.72.
(14) Saint-Rémy "Vie de Toussaint-L'Ouverture. Cayes, 1850. p.19.


(15) J.-C. Dorsainvil & F.I.C. Manuel d'histoire d'Haiti. Port-au-Prince. 1925. réed.1942. p.64.

(16) "Jean François, Biassou et quelques autres, que leur taille, leur force et d'autres avantages corporels semblaient désigner pour le commandement.” [Translation] : "Jean Francois, Biassou, and some others, whose size, strength, and other bodily advantages seemed to designate to be in command." Beaubrun Ardouin. Études sur l'histoire d'Haïti. Volume 1. Paris, 1853. pp.230-231.

(17) "Ce nègre [Macandal], déjà remarquable par sa taille de titan, sa force herculéenne, l'était encore bien davantage par son origine et son intelligence." [Translation] : "This negro [Macandal], already remarkable for his size of titan, his Herculean strength, was still more so by his origin and intelligence." Revue du monde colonial, asiatique et américain: organe politique ..., Volume 12. Paris, 1864. p.448.

(18) "Une négresse de taille gigantesque [Cécile Fatiman] (...) fit son apparition. On eût dit que ses yeux lançaient des étincelles." [Translation] : "A gigantic negress [Cécile Fatiman] (...) made her appearance. One would have said that her eyes threw sparks." Bulletin international des études créoles, Volumes 13-15, AUPELF, 1990 - Creole dialects, French. 24.

(19) "[Henry] Christophe was tall, strong, and handsome, with bright, flashing eyes — "a fine portly looking man," as a British naval officer who visited Haiti in 1818 describes him." Earl Leslie Giggs & Clifford H. Prator (ed). Henry Christophe & Thomas Clarkson: A Correspondance. Berkely & Los Angeles, 1952. pp.38-39.

(20) "Les insurgés du Cul-de-Sac avaient à leur tête un africain, nommé Halaou, d'une taille gigantesque, dune force herculéenne." [Translation] : "The insurgents of Cul-de-Sac had at their head an African, named Halaou, of a gigantic size, of Herculean strength." Thomas Madiou. HIstoire d'Haïti, Tome 1. Port-au-Prince, 1847. p.181.

(21) Mémoire de l'assemblée générale de la partie Française de Saint-Domingue, concernant l'emprunt qu'elle se propose de faire à la Jamaïque. (25 septembre 1791). in : La Gazette de Saint-Domingue. du Mercredi 2 Novembre 1791. Parution No.88. p. 1008.
(22) Garran-Coulon. Rapport sur les troubles de Saint-Domingue, fait au nom de la Commission des colonies, des Comités de salut public, de législation et de marine, réunis. Tome 2. p.246.
(23) Moreau de St Méry. [A.N. COLONIES P.88]" in : Pierre Pluchon. Vaudou, sorciers, empoisonneurs: de Saint-Domingue à Haiti. Paris, 1987. p.185.
(24) (ANOM) Archives Nationale d’Outremer), État civil de St-Domingue, par. 33 (Port-au-Prince/Saint-Domingue), 1757, p./vue 38
(25) David Geggus. “Les esclaves de la plaine du Nord à la veille de la Révolution française, pt 1." in: Revue de la Société haïtienne d'histoire et de géographie, Issues 132-137. Port-au-Prince, 1981. pp. 85-107.
(26) Les Affiches Américaines of  February 10, 1776, parution no. 6, p. 69 ;
URL: http://www.marronnage.info/en/lire.php?type=liste&id=2309
(27) Les Affiches Américaines of October 5, 1779, parution no. 40, p.0.
URL: http://www.marronnage.info/fr/lire.php?type=annonce&id=5488
(28) Les Affiches Américaines of December 19, 1780, parution no. 51, p.405
URL: http://www.marronnage.info/en/lire.php?type=liste&id=1412
(29) David D. Geggus. "Les esclaves de la plaine du Nord à la veille de la Révolution française, pt. 3" in: Revue de la Société haïtienne d'histoire et de géographie, Issues 142-149. Port-au-Prince, 1984. pp.15-44.
(30) Almanach royal d'Hayti pour l'année 1816", P. Roux, Imprimeur du Roi. Cap-Henry, 1816. pp.30, 53.
(31) Les Affiches Américaines of June 13, 1780,  issue no. 24,  p.190.
http://www.marronnage.info/fr/lire.php?type=annonce&id=5658
(32) C. N. Céligny Ardouin. Études sur l'histoire d'Haïti, Volume 1, Paris, 1853. p228..
(33)) Les Affiches Américaines of December 31, 1766,  issue no. 53,  p.442
URL : http://www.marronnage.info/en/lire.php?type=liste&id=10635
(34)  Les Affiches Américaines of July 17, 1767,  issue no. 28,  p.224
URL : http://www.marronnage.info/fr/lire.php?type=annonce&id=1986
(35)  Les Affiches Américaines of June 23, 1784,  issue no. 25,  p.399
URL : http://www.marronnage.info/fr/lire.php?type=annonce&id=6910
(36)  Les Affiches Américaines of February 23, 1788,  issue no. 8,  p.337
URL : http://www.marronnage.info/fr/lire.php?type=annonce&id=8586
(37)  Les Affiches Américaines of December 17, 1786,  issue no. 52,  p.600
URL : http://www.marronnage.info/fr/lire.php?type=annonce&id=1121



 
How to cite this article:
Rodney Salnave. "Boukman wasn't Jamaican". Sept. 24, 2016. Updated Mar. 23, 2017. [online] URL: http://bwakayiman.blogspot.com/2016/09/boukman-wasnt-jamaican.html ; Retrieved on [enter date]


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